Pediatric Liver Diseases
There are about 15,000 children hospitalized in the United States each year due to liver disease, partly because of a hepatitis infection, partly because genetic defects like cystic fibrosis or biliary atresia.
Hepatitis A (HAV) in Children
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a potential cause for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). These patients account for a substantial proportion (10-20%) of the pediatric liver transplants in some countries despite the relatively mild infection that is observed in many children infected with HAV.
Hepatitis B (HBV) in Children
The major risk of a HBV infection during childhood is a chronic infection and the development of a chronic liver disease. 30-60% of children aged 1-5 years infected with HBV will become chronically infected. And up to 10% of older children and adults infected with HBV will become chronically infected.
Most people from Asia, the Pacific Rim, and Africa become infected with HBV during childhood: from infected mother to child at birth, from child to child contact in household settings, and from reuse of non-sterilized needles and syringes in poor healthcare facilities.
Especially in Asia hepatitis B virus is a high risk for newborn and children: 90% of newborn at birth with hepatitis B virus will become chronically infected and might therefore develop a chronic liver disease.
Mucoviscidosis / Cystic Fibrosis
Mucoviscidosis or cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common and serious of all genetic (inherited) diseases. The recessive CF gene is carried by approximately 1/20 persons and about 1 in 500 couples is at risk for having children with cystic fibrosis. CF affects the digestive tract and the lungs and is characterized by the production of abnormal secretions leading to mucous build-up, which can impair the pancreas and, secondarily, the intestine. Cystic fibrosis mucous build-up in lungs can impair respiration. Without treatment, CF results in death for 95% of children before age 5. Advanced methods of diagnosis and treatment have greatly increased the survival rate.
Biliary atresia affects approximately one in every 15,000 live births. Due to the congenital absence or closure of the ducts that drain bile, bile becomes trapped in the liver, causing jaundice and (eventually) cirrhosis.
The condition is fatal if left untreated and no curative therapy for biliary atresia exists. Surgical treatment, the Kasai portoenterostomy, restores bile flow and clears jaundice, and if successful, achieves a 10-year survival rate. Yet even with early surgery, 60 percent to 80 percent of patients eventually develop end-stage biliary cirrhosis and require liver transplantation.
Liver transplantation plays an important role in the long-term treatment of biliary atresia. Pediatric liver transplantation has evolved into a highly successful therapy and now offers significant hope for all children born with biliary atresia.
Pediatric Liver Diseases
- pediatric (mucoviscidosis, cystic fibrosis)
- pediatric (primary billiary atresia)
Contact us regarding "Pediatric Liver Diseases"
or call Tilo Stolzke at +49 451 400 83 01 directly.
Studies and publications on pediatric liver diseases
- Liver needle biopsy in Iraninan pediatric patients: Diagnostic significance and pattern of liver diseases. Monajemzadeh M, Tabriz HM, Mahjoub F, Fallahi G, Farahmand F. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2009;52:10-3