Liver Function Urine Tests
These tests work quite similar to the functional liver challenge tests. A challenge substance like caffeine or methacetin is given to the patient. Then urine samples are collected at timed intervals and sent to the laboratory. Here the elimination rates of a certain markers in the urine are supervised and a picture of the condition of the liver is made.
Urine Caffeine Metabolite Ratios
When caffeine clearance is measured from a spot urine sample by intravenous infusion of stable isotope-labelled caffeine while consuming oral caffeine, the caffeine clearance is decreased in subjects with cirrhosis but not with patients with chronic hepatitis. Despite the large interindividual variation observed, the test can be repeated easily in the same patient and an individual patient's decline in CYP1A2 activity, such as in patients with progressively deteriorating liver function, can be monitored.
15N-Methacetin Urine Test
A simple, non-invasive test to measure the activity of the hepatocellular monooxygenase system in vivo. Elimination rates of the stable isotope 15N are measured in urine after an oral dose of 15N methacetin.
The Delta-ALA (delta-aminolevulinic acid) Urine Test is one of the more basic porphyria tests. Delta-ALA is a chemical produced from amino acids in the liver. Decreased levels may occur with chronic liver disease while increased levels of urinary delta-ALA may indicate many types of porphyria. In addition increased levels may indicate lead poisoning. A 24-hour urine sample collection of urine is needed for this test.
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